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In many countries, for example, laws criminalize sexual and gender minorities directly or indirectly on the grounds of morality or promotion of non-traditional values.This can result in physical punishment, death penalty, arbitrary arrest and torture, ill-treatment in health facilities and forced sterilization.These attacks constitute a form of gender-based violence, driven by a desire to punish those seen as defying gender norms.”Although the UN recognized violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity as a form of gender-based violence, we do not know whether such violence is characterized by the same gender dynamics and motivations as gender-based violence against women or if it follows a different path.Sexual stigma based on perceived sexual orientation emerges from a society’s shared belief system in which homosexuality is denigrated and discredited as invalid relative to heterosexuality.
Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included people belonging to a sexual or gender minority.
Such violence may be physical (including murder, beatings, kidnappings, rape and sexual assault) or psychological (including threats, coercion and arbitrary deprivations of liberty).
These attacks constitute a form of gender-based violence, driven by a desire to punish those seen as defying gender norms.”“Homophobic and transphobic violence has been recorded in all regions.
Gender identity or gender expression Refers to a person’s deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth.
It includes both the personal sense of the body – which may involve, if freely chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means – as well as other expressions of gender, including dress, speech and mannerisms.
However, these did not report whether the victims perceived the violence being against their sexual orientation and gender identity.