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The term pope (Latin: papa "father") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII; crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530).
This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. His niece was married to the future Henry II of France. His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries. Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Member of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope.
Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623). Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars; first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix. Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) establishing Vatican City as a sovereign state. Re-founded the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (1936). First pope to travel to the United States and Australia; first pope since 1809 to travel outside Italy. Issued the encyclical Humanae vitae (1968) condemning artificial contraception. Abolished the coronation opting for the Papal Inauguration.
Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name; first with two names for two immediate predecessors. First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522–1523). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294), Argentinian.
For Palmarian popes, see Palmarian Catholic Church § Popes.
For popes of the Legio Maria, see List of Legio Maria Popes.
The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II".
The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.
From this time forward the technical signification of the word Catholic meets us with increasing frequency both East and West, until by the beginning of the fourth century it seems to have almost entirely supplanted the primitive and more general meaning. 155) to "the bishop of the catholic church in Smyrna " (Letter on the Martyrdom of St.
The earlier examples have been collected by Caspari (Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols, etc., III, 149 sqq.). Polycarp, xvi), a phrase which necessarily presupposes a more technical use of the word, is due, some critics think, to interpolation.
Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes). Feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. An appointee of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. In 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities. Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, there was no John XX. Resigned from office and rumored to have been murdered in prison by Boniface VIII.