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A single head of barley can produce up to 80 seeds. The Barley tillers are round and erect, with conspicuous nodes and internodes. The ability of the barley plant to send up new tillers in response to favorable environmental conditions is a useful mechanism for adapting to changes during the growing season.Two-rowed varieties usually have a higher number of tillers per plant and larger, heavier seed than six-rowed varieties.Many references to barley and beer are found in early Egyptian and Sumerian writings that are more than 5000 years old.Archaeological evidence of barley cultivation has been found dating back to 8000 BC in Iran.It is an annual diploid species with 2n=14 chromosomes.The genetic system is relatively simple, while the species is genetically diverse, making it an ideal study organism.The straw of barley is generally weaker than wheat.While claims are often made about the wide adaptability of various cereal crops, barley may well be the champion.

It is particularly noted for its tolerance to cold, drought, alkali, and salinity.

Barley should be grown under moderate nitrogen fertility conditions because high fertility will reduce kernel plumpness and increase lodging.

The grain protein target for malting barley is 11.5% to 13%, which must also be considered in determining appropriate N fertilizer levels.

Molecular evidence has revealed considerable homology between barley, wheat, and rye.

Among the wild Barley has a single floret in each spikelet.

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Barley ranks fourth among the cereals in terms of total world production.